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Understanding Terrorism in the 21st Century

Understanding Terrorism in the 21st Century

Graph created by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) depicting the type and number of terrorist acts from 1980-2001. (Courtesy: FBI)

Noor Razzaq

In post-911 American society, “terrorism” has become an everyday term used to describe everything from gorilla style warfare against U.S. troops overseas to the mass murder of civilians in the name of foreign ideological and political agendas. Due to the current political context of the United States in the world regarding the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, many citizens of the western world automatically associate terrorism with right-wing Islamic extremism. The purpose of this article is to expound upon the common American worldview of terrorism to extend beyond so-called “Islamic” extremism and other inherently limited definitions of terrorism. This article will specifically analyze various definitions of terrorism, briefly overview characteristics and goals of terrorism, and review various widely accepted categories of terrorism.

The difficulty in effectively defining the concept of terrorism lies in the fact that the definition of terrorism has changed significantly over the centuries. While the word ‘terrorism’ was originally coined to describe the “systematic order of terror” used to rule the reluctant citizenry of 18th century France (Roberts, 2002, p. 1), it has evolved into something much different and much less uniformly definable. Although there is no longer a universally accepted definition of terrorism, there have still been attempts at a definition. For example, Razzaq (2003) defines terrorism as a “systematic use of fear and criminal activity to achieve goals or objectives that a terrorist organization has laid out” (p. 2). However, this definition is an example of how representatives from various organizations define terrorism in support of their own organizational goals; in Razzaq’s case, this was the simplest definition necessary in order to provide instruction to tactical operators in hostage rescue.

Another example of defining terrorism in accordance with organizational structure and agendas would be the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DoD) definition which states terrorism is “the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological” (Constitutional Rights Foundation, n.d.). Scholarly definitions are a little more all-encompassing due to a lack of organizational influence or agenda, such as the definition presented by Professor James M. Poland of California State University in Sacramento. Poland defines terrorism as the premeditated, systematic, and deliberate mayhem, murder, and threats to innocent people used to gain political or tactical advantage and to influence an audience (Constitutional Rights Foundation, n.d.).

There are some common characteristics of terrorism that various “experts” on the subject agree upon. First, terrorism is an extreme form of political manipulation, usually with the goal of influencing some sort of public policy. Terrorists perform acts of terror in order to alter public perception of the government’s overall legitimacy or effectiveness. This is accomplished both by disrupting or destroying lines or methods of communication in an effort to create doubt in the hearts of citizens that their government can protect and provide for them and hiding out in urban areas, thereby inherently causing an increase in civilian casualties that can be blamed on the government the terrorists are fighting against. Criminal acts such as bombing, beheadings, and kidnapping are used as a means to the end of whatever objective the terrorist group sets out to accomplish. In addition to the aforementioned characteristics, the International Terrorism and Security Research (n.d.) lists the following as generalized goals of terrorism: producing widespread fear and panic, attract media attention to their cause, embarrass, harass, and/or weaken government security forces causing them to overreact and appear oppressive, satisfy vengeance, and free prisoners. These definitions all differ from insurgency, which is actually a movement with the goal of attacking a particular government is to gain geographic territory or political power/equality and does not necessarily require the use of terrorism.

Not only does the definition for terrorism vary depending on the entity or organization defining the term, so does public opinions and views on terrorism. The old axiom “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter” would be the paradigm of most terrorists, who do not see themselves as terrorists, but rather as combatants fighting for their beliefs by way of unconventional warfare. In contrast, a victim of terrorism will view the terrorist as evil and heartless, a fact demonstrated by the public outcry against extremists (who mistakenly call themselves “Muslim”) in the aftermath of the 9-11 attacks in 2001. The increase in prevalence of terrorist attacks by Arab extremists over the past couple of decades further exacerbates the national paradigm that terrorism is primarily of Middle Eastern or Islamic practice and origin. However, this is simply not the case.

There are a myriad of categories of terrorist groups and terrorism in general. These include Religious, Separatists, Ethnocentric, Nationalistic, Revolutionary, Political, Social, Domestic, and International or Transnational. Religious terrorism is the category most Americans are familiar with due to the widespread media coverage of Islamic extremism. The major danger with religious terrorist groups lies in the rigidity of their beliefs. “Religiously motivated terrorists see their objectives as holy writ, and therefore infallible and non-negotiable” (ITSR, n.d.). It should be noted that while terrorism by extremists from Muslim countries is the most widely covered, virtually every religious group in the world has (and still is) engaged in religious terrorism. Another type of terrorist groups is the Separatists, who use terrorism as a means of obtaining political autonomy, though separatists could also be categorized as insurgents. An example of this would be the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Ethnocentric terrorist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), believe in their own superiority based on inherent racial characteristics and are motivated by the concept of ‘ethnic cleansing’ by way of extermination and/or subjugation of all other races.

Nationalistic terrorism is much like separatism in that there is a desire for political autonomy; however, this is generally based on a certain widespread cultural idealism such as was the case with the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Revolutionary Terrorism is dedicated to the overthrowing of an established political order and replacing it with a new social and/or political structure. The United States is known throughout the world (except domestically) to have trained many citizens of foreign nations in revolutionary terrorism as a method of covertly spreading democracy in various countries overseas (though we don’t call it revolutionary terrorism). An example of this is the South American nation of Honduras which became a constitutional democracy in the 1980s with the assistance of U.S. Special Forces, who trained and assisted contras in overthrowing their former government (Photius Coutsoukis, 2004). Political terrorism is simply a broad category which encompasses all types of politically motivated terrorism.

‘Social terrorism’ pertains to terrorist acts carried out in regards to a special interest, such as abortion, animal rights, minority rights, and environmentalists. Domestic terrorist groups operate within their own country and fight for varying ideologies. Examples of domestic terrorist groups in the United States include the KKK, Aryan Nation, and the Earth Liberation Front (Crawford, 2001). Finally, there is International and Transnational terrorism, terms which more describes the operational influence, reach, and support of these groups. International groups operate in multiple countries, but usually focus on a specific geographical region for their activities whereas transnational terrorists operate and focus on multiple countries. Hezbollah is considered to be an international terrorist group in that they are primarily concerned with ongoing events in Lebanon and Israel, whereas Al Qaeda could be considered a transnational terrorist group (ITSR, n.d.).

The bottom line is that there are many views, concepts, and definitions of terrorism. While many in the western world automatically associate terrorism with right-wing so-called “Islamic” extremism, the fact is that this type extremism only comprises a percentage of terrorism and terrorist groups across the globe. It is important for those responsible for combating 21st century terrorism to go beyond the common American worldview of terrorism to extend beyond religious extremism to an understanding of the topic as applied to both the United States and the world theatre as a whole.

References:

Constitutional Rights Foundation. (n.d.). America Responds to Terrorism: What is Terrorism. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from: http://www.crfusa.org/terror/What_Is_Terrorism_rev.htm

Crawford, M. (2001). MILNET: Domestic Terrorist Group Profiles. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from: http://www.milnet.com/domestic/dtgmain.htm

International Terrorism and Security Research. (n.d.). What is Terrorism?; Goals and Motivations of Terrorists; Categories of Terrorist Groups; and Differences between Terrorism and Insurgency. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from: http://www.terrorism-research.com

Photius Coutsoukis. (2004). Honduras United States Military Assistance and Training. Retrieved June 19, 2007, from: http://www.photius.com/countries/honduras/national_security/honduras_national_security_united_states_milita~32.html

Razzaq, N.Z. (2003, September). U.S. Air Force 1st Security Forces Squadron Emergency Services Team (EST) Lesson Guide. Paper presented at Langley Air Force Base EST (SWAT) Team’s First Instructional Forum on Terrorism.

Roberts, A. (2002). The Changing Faces of Terrorism. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/sept_11/changing_faces_01.shtml

© Noor Razzaq


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    arnoldlk

    over 3 years ago

    2 Comments

    I just want to differ the ideology and motive of this article: Islamic Jihadist terrorism is not similar to what KKK and Aryan Nation as an ideology and motive, as majority Muslim countries all over the world had been trying to make an analogy as non muslim had been doing similar things(terrorism done by KKK etc). If we look closer and deeper that Jihadist terrorist believe it's commanded by Allah so it's about religious superiority complex syndrome. On the other side KKK, Aryan Nation, Neo Nazi, Nazi believe it's superiority race, and it has nothing to do with religion. It's not surprising that we don't see and hear the level of terrorism attack was done by Neo Nazi, why because in superiority race believe they just want to keep the pure race for themselves, on the other hand Islamic Jihadist terrorist back in 7th century always spread the religion influence by using the swords, in modern world the swords are being replaced by modern weapons, also by sending the Army of Allah such as suicide bomber within deeper goal to terrorize the world as commanded by their Allah in order to dominate the world

  • Segway-police-unit-china_max50

    foxblood

    over 3 years ago

    396 Comments

    wow I'd also like to point out that left wing AMERICANS are nearly as threatening as Islamic terrorists that are willing to strap a bomb to their chest because we killed their wife and their kids? That's gotta be a sham. Those commies don't care as much as the people we used chemical weapons on.

  • Segway-police-unit-china_max50

    foxblood

    over 3 years ago

    396 Comments

    Very good! It’s pretty clear how our own very American people with people that have opinions that don’t conform are now being termed as terrorist. (Peaceful) protestors used to be considered patriots, and now are the enemy. It’s a changed world we live in… Remember, the job is to enforce the law. The law can unfortunately and is be swayed by corporate lobbying (“donating” large sums of money) to politicians who vote for bills that decide the law. These bills are often put forth by corporations that are motivated by maximizing profits, and if they have to adjust a law to get their way, it’s usually not in the public’s best interest (LEOs affected also). If a group of red blooded Americans people exercise rights they were engrained with that they had in history class then they get labeled and put on the terrorist watch list. I don’t think it’s fair that our LEOs (often) have to deal with normal Americans who have an opinion and have to see them as a criminal or a terrorist for having a problem with the status quo. Now, on the flip side there’s a very real need to keep an eye on real terrorists. But how loose the term “terrorist” is and how it can be used to control and dehumanize local people is the point I’m making. It’s a very faint line. Any sign of resistance = terrorist. And when it’s corporate corruption that’s making it’s way into our law books.. is resistance a bad thing?

  • Photo_00002_max50

    Recondo99

    over 3 years ago

    2578 Comments

    Very good explation of "terrorism" and how many of us are guilty of stereotyping. I think many people use that word terrorism rather loosely.

  • Sfa_iv_max50

    revCCBeasley

    over 3 years ago

    2944 Comments

    Good article. Yes the start to any good defense is the smallest element being aware of their surrounding and going on in each community regardsless of its size.

  • Angel_kincaid_park_2014_max50

    AKangel

    about 4 years ago

    4978 Comments

    Bump USLawman1983

  • 2011_range_day_2-19-10_max50

    USLawman1983

    about 4 years ago

    1572 Comments

    True homeland security starts with vigilant police work, from the big cities to the small towns. We are the tip of the spear.

  • Photo_user_blank_big

    Anonymous

    about 4 years ago

    The "T-Word", the word that most police agencies and police officers dread to admit exists....

  • Inst_generic_max50

    SrtUnit2576

    about 6 years ago

    16178 Comments

    Good!

  • Photo_user_blank_big

    PIWhiteside

    about 6 years ago

    2 Comments

    good

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