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Getting in Touch with the Forensic Side of Law Enforcement

Getting in Touch with the Forensic Side of Law Enforcement

Sergeant Betsy Brantner Smith

These days, a career in law enforcement doesn’t mean you have to patrol the mean streets of an urban jungle or walk the cell block of the state prison. One of the most popular areas of police work today is forensics. But the term “forensic science” means so much more than what you see on Wednesday’s episode of “CSI.” Simply put, being a forensic specialist is the ability to apply specific sciences to legal and criminal situations to answer questions, and there are many areas of interest to choose from.

Ballistics

The use of firearms evidence identification can be traced back to the early 1800’s, but the first court case involving firearms evidence took place in 1902 when Oliver Wendell Holmes used ballistics to prove that a specific gun was the murder weapon in one of his cases.

He had read about the science of individual firearm identification and asked a gunsmith to test-fire the alleged murder weapon into a wad of cotton wool and then use a magnifying glass to match the bullet from the victim with the test bullet. Holmes won his case based on the forensics of the case.

The development and use of “ballistic fingerprinting” databases in now widely debated throughout the United States. Some of the other areas involved in forensic firearms investigation include gunshot residue testing, the trajectory of the rounds fired, and bullet wound creation and identification.

Fingerprints

Fingerprint evidence is the first “CSI” topic I learned about as a college student in the late 1970’s. A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges on all parts of the fingers and often the palms as well.

As a young cop I learned all about loops, whorls and arches and how to not only take a suspect’s fingerprints (back then we used real ink to “roll” the prints) but how to protect a crime scene so that an evidence technician could come to the scene and attempt to lift latent prints to help identify the perpetrators. Fingerprints can now be lifted not only from typical crime scene surfaces like a doorframe or a knife handle, but even from a deceased body or a very rough surface.

All fingerprints now taken from suspects are entered into the FBI’s database know as IAFIS, the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, for later potential comparison. The fingerprinting of all suspected criminals was introduced in 1906 by NYPD Deputy Police Commissioner Joseph Faurot in 1906, and while it is not the exact science we once thought it was, fingerprint evidence is still a staple in helping law enforcement identify criminals and their crime scenes.

Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

I was not much a science student in college, but when I took “Biology 101” I convinced the professor to let me do a presentation on using DNA as evidence in a criminal case, and I was fascinated!

This was pretty cutting-edge stuff at the time; the first person convicted of rape as the result of DNA evidence was Tommy Lee Andrews in 1987. Andrews raped a woman during a burglary in Florida and was sentenced to 22 years for his crime. In 1989 the overturning of Chicagoan Gary Dotson’s rape conviction using DNA evidence made international headlines.

These days, the collection and use of blood, fluids, and any other matter used in DNA profiling is commonplace, in fact, it’s so common in the media, in fiction and in entertainment shows like “CSI” that it can actually hamper an investigation or wrongly influence a jury who is expecting there to be DNA evidence in every crime. The study of blood splatter patterns, the use of chemicals like luminal to locate previously removed blood evidence, and locating footprints and fingerprints in coagulated blood left at a crime scene are just a few of the many ways that the study of blood evidence can be used to solve heinous crimes.

Digital Forensics

This is probably one of the fastest growing areas of forensic science.

The goal of computer forensics is to explain the current state of a digital artifact, which can be anything from a computer storage device (like a PC’s hard drive or a USB memory device) to an electronic document or image (such as an email or a JPEG file), which can then be used to determine something as simple as what information is stored or evidence as complicated as the detailed sequence of events in a given case. Computer forensic experts can help solve anything from child pornography cases to high level financial crimes.

In the case of missing Washington intern Chandra Levy in 2001, her personal PC was examined to determine who she had been emailing (her parents) and what websites she had visited (a popular nearby running park) which led investigators to search Rock Creek Park, where her body was discovered nearly a year after her disappearance. Digital forensics also includes mobile device forensics, which changes and evolves as does cell phone technology. Digital forensics has helped law enforcement close many a case that might have otherwise gone unsolved

Forensic Archaeology

While most of us think of archeologists as scientists who study dinosaur bones and ancient burial grounds, forensic archaeologists have long been helping police investigators solve criminal cases that may have seemed hopeless.

Many years ago my own agency investigated a case in which our only crime scene was a scattered group of human bones found in a corn field. Thanks to the help of a forensic archeologist and an enormous amount of good old fashioned police work, our detectives were able to solve a double homicide, bring a murderer to justice, and bring peace to the family of the victims. Forensic archaeologists not only deal with bones and bodies, but they may also help analyze weapons, clothing, and other evidence long since buried and perhaps forgotten by everyone except the offender.

This is only a tiny overview of all the specialties involved in the forensic side of law enforcement. Trace evidence, facial reconstruction, skid marks analysis and other accident reconstruction, toxicology, and even forensic psychology are a few more areas for you to look into if these topics interest you. The bottom line is, if you’re serious about crime scene investigation, explore your options, do your research, get a great education, and then get out there and start solving crime!


Criminal Justice Career Paths


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    sammar10

    almost 4 years ago

    2 Comments

    This is very interesting to me! I am taking Criminal Justice and would like to know if anyone knows how to get into any of the above fields? Do you have to be a police officer first and what kind of a degree is needed?

  • Photo_user_blank_big

    lisae511

    almost 4 years ago

    6 Comments

    Way to pay attention in Trace John. Stormy would be proud

  • L_e210a437564541f3b616f590e086e68a_max50

    hollywood_nc

    almost 4 years ago

    4 Comments

    "Splatter" is the act or process of blood trajectory on a given surface. What remains for examination is blood "spatter". Otherwise - AWESOME article.

  • Photo_user_banned_big

    Hammo1985

    about 4 years ago

    10 Comments

    fingerprints can be stored on the new iPhone 4 white. Also its great for movies as it records in HD

  • Photo_user_blank_big

    Covert

    over 4 years ago

    2 Comments

    He who increases his knowledge also increases his sorrow!

  • Photo_user_blank_big

    Anonymous

    about 5 years ago

    Interesting...

  • Native_clip_art_4_049_max50

    Sheriff_1

    about 5 years ago

    8024 Comments

    EXCELLENT. Anything that will aid our profession to put the bad guys away is a valuable asset. Some television shows may overdo the possibilities in forensics but everyday the technology increases, techniques are developed. As stated DNA now is a standard technique and many individuals who thought they would never get caught are.

  • Avatar7636_1_max50

    IDEALIST

    over 5 years ago

    13652 Comments

    Good info

  • Dscn0118_max50

    Adladle

    over 5 years ago

    604 Comments

    Very interesting and informative.

  • Photo_user_blank_big

    kdjolly

    over 5 years ago

    6 Comments

    I have worked in the IT industry for over 12 years and would love working with digital forensics now. It is nice to know that my old career can help my new one. Great article!

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    rshanesharp

    over 5 years ago

    80 Comments

    Good information.

  • Pictures-of-cartoon-characters-tom-and_3_max50

    rescue101

    over 5 years ago

    238 Comments

    Yeah and speaking of 10-15 years ago I am really superised at howmany people are being tried for cimes now that DNA has been in use. The lack of such science had let them free for now, that is until they are caught.

  • Meda_2_007_max50

    medamarie

    over 5 years ago

    50 Comments

    Sgt Brantar is so right in her assessment of forensic duties. I am finishing up my degree in forensic psychology with a minor in police psychology, and the wealth of untapped careers in the forensic field is amazing. Thing you would never have dreamed of 10 - 15 years ago are now being accepted in our court of law. Then simple fdusting for fingerprints has gone off in a multitude of directions, and we have only scrapped the service of the DNA. Keep your eyes and ears open towards the field of forensics, it's only going to get better

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